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Historical Background
General Remarks
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The Children's Crusade
The Consequences of the Crusades
The Fifth Crusade (1228-1229)
The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II had repeatedly vowed a crusade and sailed to Acre in 1227 to reconquer Jerusalem. But an epidemic forced him back to Italy, where he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for failing to keep his vow.

In 1228 Frederick sailed to Syria and arrived in Acre in the same year. But support in Acre was split. Frederick did not get the necessary support to conquer Jerusalem with an army. Realizing this, Frederick succeeded in obtaining Jerusalem and a few other cities through negotiations and established a truce with Saladin for 10 years. He returned back to Italy the same year and forced the Pope to lift the excommunication.

Through this success, Frederick II had demonstrated how a crusade could be a success even without military superiority or papal support.

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